Seasonal flu vaccines
What is a flu vaccine?
Influenza (flu) vaccines (often referred to as “flu shots”) are vaccines that protect against the four influenza viruses, which research shows will be the most prevalent in the coming season.
Most flu vaccines are “flu shots” that is given with a needle, usually in the arm, but there is also a flu vaccine that comes in a nasal spray form.
Is there more than one type of flu vaccine?
Yes. There are several manufacturers of influenza vaccines and multiple influenza vaccines that are approved and recommended for use in the United States.
For people under the age of 65, the CDC prefers not to recommend an approved, age-appropriate influenza (flu) vaccine. over another during the 2022-2023 flu season.
Options for this age group include inactivated influenza vaccine [IIV], recombinant influenza vaccine [RIV], or live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), with no preference given to any influenza vaccine over any other.
New this season: There are three influenza vaccines preferred over standard-dose non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines for people age 65 and older.
These are the high-dose quadrivalent Fluzone vaccine, the quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine Flublok and the quadrivalent adjuvanted influenza vaccine Fluad.
All influenza vaccines for the 2022-2023 season are quadrivalent vaccines to protect against four different influenza viruses, including two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses.
The different vaccines are approved for use in different age groups, but some vaccines are not recommended for certain groups of people.
Available flu vaccines include:
Standard-dose flu vaccines are made from viruses grown in eggs. There are several brands of standard-dose influenza vaccines available, including Afluria Quadrivalent, Fluarix Quadrivalent, FluLaval Quadrivalent, and Fluzone Quadrivalent.
These vaccines are approved for use in children from 6 months of age.
Most flu shots are given with a needle in the arm (muscle). Afluria Quadrivalent can be administered with a needle (for people aged 6 months and over) or with a jet injector (for people aged 18 and over). only up to 64 years).
A cell-based influenza vaccine (Flucelvax Quadrivalent) that contains viruses grown in cell culture and is approved for people aged 6 months and older.
This vaccine is completely egg-free. Quadrivalent), a completely egg-free influenza vaccine made using recombinant technology and approved for use in people 18 years and older.
This vaccine is made without influenza viruses and contains three times more antigen (the part of the vaccine that helps your body build up protection against influenza viruses) than other standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines to induce a stronger immune response.
A high-dose egg-based influenza vaccine (Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent) approved for use in people 65 years and older. This vaccine contains four times the antigen (the part of the vaccine that helps your body build up protection against the influenza virus) than other standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines to induce a stronger immune response. Adjuvant (an ingredient that helps generate a stronger immune response).
An egg-based live attenuated aerosol influenza vaccine (FluMist Quadrivalent) made with live attenuated (weakened) influenza viruses and approved for use in individuals 2 to 49 years of age.
This vaccine is not recommended for use in pregnant women, in people with immunosuppression or in people with certain medical conditions.
There are many flu vaccine options to choose from, but most importantly, everyone 6 months and older get a flu vaccine every year.
If you have questions about which vaccine is best for you, talk to your doctor or other healthcare professional.
Additional information on the influenza vaccines approved for the 2021-2022 flu season and age ratings for each vaccine is available from the CDC.
Who should and shouldn’t be vaccinated against the flu?
Everyone in the United States 6 months and older should get the flu shot every season, with rare exceptions.
The CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has made this “universal” recommendation since the 2010-2011 flu season.
Getting vaccinated to prevent the flu and its potentially serious complications is especially important for people who are at higher risk of developing serious complications from the flu. different influenza (flu) vaccines are approved for use in people of different ages.
In addition, some vaccines are not recommended for certain groups of people. Factors that can determine a person’s eligibility for vaccination or vaccination with a particular vaccine include a person’s age, medical condition (current and past), and any allergies to influenza. vaccine or its components.
Is any of the available flu vaccines recommended over others?
yes for some people For the 2022-2023 flu season, there are three flu vaccines that are preferred for people aged 65 and over and over.
These are the Fluzone high-dose quadrivalent vaccine, Flublok quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine, or Fluad quadrivalent adjuvanted influenza vaccine.
Non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines. This recommendation is based on a review of available studies which suggest that these vaccines may be more effective than non-adjuvanted standard-dose influenza vaccines in this age group.
There is no preferred recommendation for those under the age of 65.
What happens if a preferred recommended flu vaccine is not available?
If one of the three influenza vaccines recommended for people aged 65 and over is not available at the time of administration, people in this age group should receive an age-appropriate standard vaccine. dose the flu shot instead.
How effective is the seasonal flu vaccine?
The effectiveness of influenza (flu) (VE) vaccine may vary. The protection provided by an influenza vaccine varies from season to season and depends in part on the age and medical condition of the person being vaccinated. vaccine and the similarity or “match” between the viruses in the vaccine and the viruses in circulation.
In years when the influenza vaccine is good, it is possible to measure the significant benefits of influenza vaccination in terms of preventing disease and complications of influenza.
However, the benefits of the flu Vaccination will still vary depending on the characteristics of the person to be vaccinated (e.g. their health and age), what flu viruses are circulating that season, and possibly what type of flu vaccine was used.
Below is a summary of the benefits of influenza vaccination and selected scientific studies that support these benefits.
A flu shot can prevent you from getting the flu.
- The flu shot prevents millions of flu-related illnesses and doctor visits each year. For example, in 2019-2020, the last flu season before the COVID-19 pandemic, an estimated 7 flu shots prevented .5 million influenza-associated cases, 3.7 million influenza-associated doctor visits, 105,000 influenza-associated hospitalizations, and 6,300 influenza-associated deaths.
- During seasons when influenza vaccine viruses resemble circulating influenza viruses, the influenza vaccine has been shown to reduce the risk of going to the doctor with the flu by 40% to 60%.
Several studies have shown that flu shots reduce the severity of illness in people who get vaccinated but still get sick.
- A 2021 study showed that among adults hospitalized with influenza, vaccinated patients had a 26% lower risk of being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and a 31% lower risk of being admitted die influenza than those who were not vaccinated>
- A 2018 study showed that among adults hospitalized with influenza, vaccinated patients were 59% less likely to be admitted to the ICU than unvaccinated.
- Among adults in the ICU with influenza, vaccinated patients spent an average of four days in the hospital than unvaccinated patients.
Influenza vaccines may reduce the risk of influenza-related hospitalization.
The flu vaccine prevents tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year.
For example, the flu shot prevented about 105,000 flu-related hospitalizations in 2019-2020. A 2018 study showed that between 2012 and 2015, influenza vaccination in adults reduced the risk of being admitted to an intensive care unit with influenza by 82%.
- A 2017 study found that between 2009 and 2016, flu shots reduced the risk of flu-related hospitalization by about 40% on average in older adults.
- A 2014 study showed that flu shots reduced children’s risk of flu-related PICU admissions by 74% during the 2010-2012 flu season. The flu shot is an important preventive tool for people with certain chronic conditions Lower rates of some cardiac events in people with heart disease, particularly those who have had a cardiac event in the past year.
- The flu shot may reduce the risk of worsening a flu-related chronic lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that requires hospitalization). In people with diabetes and chronic lung disease, separate studies have shown that influenza vaccination is associated with a reduction in hospitalizations for worsening chronic conditions.
- Influenza vaccination during pregnancy protects pregnant women from influenza during and after pregnancy and protects their babies from influenza during the first few months of life.
- A 2013 study showed that during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons, the risk of influenza-associated acute respiratory infections in pregnant women was roughly halved.
- A 2018 study showed that a flu shot reduced a pregnant person’s risk of being hospitalized with the flu by an average of 40% from years in 2010 to 2016.
- Several studies have shown that a flu vaccine can help protect pregnant women given during pregnancy and protects the baby from the flu for several months after birth when the babies are too young to be vaccinated. The flu shot can save lives in children.
- A 2022 study showed that getting the flu shot reduced children’s risk of contracting severe, life-threatening flu by 75%.
- ER visits in half among children (6 months to 17 years). A 2017 study was the first of its kind to show that flu shots can significantly reduce children’s risk of dying from the flu.
- You, including those who are more susceptible to severe flu, such as infants and young children, the elderly, and people with certain chronic health conditions.
Despite the numerous edges offered by grippe vaccination, solely regarding 1/2 Americans get an annual flu vaccine.
throughout a mean flu season, flu will cause variant illnesses, many thousands of hospitalizations, and tens of thousands of deaths. more individuals may be shielded from the flu if more people got vaccinated.
What are the facet effects that might occur?
Common side effects from a flu shot embody soreness, redness, and/or swelling wherever the shot was given, headache (low grade), fever, nausea, muscle aches, and fatigue.
The flu shot, like alternative injections, can often cause fainting.
will severe issues occur?
dangerous hypersensitivity to grippe shots are terribly rare.
Signs of significant aversion can embody respiration problems, roughness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, a quick heartbeat, or dizziness.
If they are doing occur, it’s typically inside a couple of minutes to a few hours when receiving the shot. These reactions can occur among persons who are allergic to one thing that’s within the vaccine, cherish egg macromolecule or alternative ingredients. whereas severe reactions are uncommon, you ought to let your doctor, nurse, clinic, or apothecary recognize if you’ve got a history of allergy or severe reaction to contagious disease immunogen or any a part of flu vaccine.
What ought I do if I actually have had a significant reaction to the seasonal flu vaccine?
decision a doctor or get to a doctor right away. Tell your doctor what happened, the date and time it happened, and after you got the flu shot.
Why do some individuals not feel well when obtaining a flu shot?
grippe vaccine facet effects are usually gentle and flee on their own inside a couple of days. Some side effects which will occur from a flu shot embody soreness, redness, and/or swelling wherever the shot was given, headache (low grade), fever, nausea, muscle aches, and fatigue.
The grippe shot, like alternative injections, will often cause fainting.
What regarding those that get a seasonal flu immunogen and still get sick with flu symptoms?
There are many reasons why somebody may get flu symptoms even when they need to be immunized against the flu.
somebody can get sick with another metabolism virus besides flu cherish rhinoviruses or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19).
alternative respiratory viruses can cause symptoms similar to flu, and they can also unfold and cause unhealthiness throughout grippe season.
grippe vaccines solely shield against flu and its complications, not alternative illnesses. somebody is exposed to flu viruses shortly before obtaining immunized or during the two-week amount when vaccination that it takes the body to develop immune protection.
This exposure might lead to an individual changing into sick with flu before protection from vaccination takes effect.
grippe vaccines vary in however well they work, and therefore one will get vaccinated but still get sick with the flu.
There are many various flu viruses that spread and cause illness among people, so this will happen if somebody is exposed to a grippe virus that’s terribly completely different from the viruses within the flu immunogen.
the power of a flu vaccine to safeguard an individual depends partly on the similarity or “match” between the vaccine viruses chosen to form a vaccine and people spreading and inflicting illness.
Even once that happens though, flu vaccination can still cut back the severity of illness.
What protection does the flu shot offer if I get the flu?
Some people who get vaccinated can still get sick. However, several studies have shown that flu shots reduce the severity of illness in people who get vaccinated but still get sick:
- A 2017 study showed that flu shots reduced deaths, hospitalizations, intensive care units (ICU), and length of stay Reduced ICU and total length of hospital stay in hospitalized influenza patients.
- Another 2018 study showed that a vaccinated adult hospitalized with the flu was 59% less likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) than someone who had not been vaccinated.
Among adults in the ICU with influenza, vaccinated patients spent an average of 4 fewer days in the hospital than non-vaccinated ones.
It’s also important to remember that the flu vaccine protects against three or four different viruses, and there are generally multiple viruses circulating during any given time of year.
For these reasons, the CDC continues to recommend influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older, even if the vaccine’s effectiveness against one or more viruses is reduced.
Special consideration regarding egg allergy
Individuals with an egg allergy may receive any appropriate influenza (flu) vaccine (IIV4, RIV4, ccIIV4, or LAIV4) that is otherwise appropriate.
People with a history of severe egg allergy (people who have had symptoms other than hives after contact with eggs) should be vaccinated in a medical setting, supervised by a healthcare provider who can identify and treat severe allergies.
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