Chemical structure of permethrin

Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as topical scabies and pediculicide. It is similar in structure to pyrethrum, which is a natural insecticide obtained from dahlia (Chrysanthemum cineraria folium) of the daisy family. The difference is that it lasts longer.

Permethrin is used in household insecticidal sprays and misting products, cat and dog flea douches and sprays, lawn and garden decoration products, repellents/insecticides

Preparations for clothing, mosquito control products, preparations against white ants, in agricultural pesticide products.

It is used in anti-lice shampoos and body lotions to combat scabies. Permethrin, the first line of treatment, is applied to the body after washing with 5% cream or lotion and washed off after 12 hours.

It works by disrupting nerve conduction and causing paralysis. For an average adult, 30 grams is enough.

Permethrin uses:

For permethrin, the total absorption over 48 hours is 0.7% of the amount applied to the body.

Permethrin is metabolized by esterases in the skin and eliminated through the kidneys within 72 hours.

It is metabolized and eliminated faster than absorption through the skin. so that it does not accumulate on the skin.

Side effects are extremely rare. The most common side effects are localized burning, irritation, and tingling, but these are generally short-lived and rarely cause contact dermatitis.

Permethrin can be used for scabies in newborns. A cure rate of 97.8% was reported. in a single application with permethrin.

Permethrin proved to be more effective than crotamiton and lindane. Two consecutive uses of permethrin increase its effectiveness.

The treatment must be repeated 1 or 2 weeks after the first application. It is pregnancy category B.

When treating scabies, the itching can last for weeks or months if the condition is left untreated.

The patient and the entire family or people with whom he lives must be treated.

Contrary to expectations, itching may not go away immediately after treatment.

The patient should be informed that the itching is decreasing and instructed to avoid frequent applications of the treatment and irritating washes.

It is important to inform the patient in writing about the medication to be administered.

Permethrin application:

Application, amount of application, application method, and precautions to be taken.

First, a bath with soap and water is performed. The cream or lotion should be applied to all of the skin, starting at the nape of the neck and behind the ears, including any creases, groin, navel, genital area, and under the nails.

Facial and scalp applications are controversial in patients with classic scabies. There are also opinions that the medication should be applied to the entire skin, Except around the eyes.

Also, the skin of the face should be treated in infants due to contact with breastfeeding. The medicine is given by someone who does not have scabies.

Permethrin formula

Permethrin formula to treat scabies or pediculosis in the groin./strong>Rp./strong>

Permethrin 2,5 g/strong>

Setomacrogol 1000 2.4 g/strong>

Cetostearyl alcohol 5.1 g/strong>

White petroleum jelly 7.5 g/strong>

Liquid paraffin 3 g/strong>

Distilled water qs 50 g/strong>

Permethrin Ingredients

Ingredients used in the formula:/strong>

Permethrin- Permethrin [ABDATA-SK; LOVE; BAN1999; PEARL; HOSTEL; USAN]

-permethrin [DCF; INN]

—Acticin [TN];/strong>

It looks like colorless crystals. It is insoluble in water.

Permethrin is effective against a broad spectrum of lice, ticks, fleas, and the like. Permethrin works by interfering with the sodium channel in the nerve cell membrane of these animals, which regulates membrane polarization.

The insect dies as a result of delayed repolarization and subsequent paralysis.

Permethrin is applied topically. It was estimated that less than 2% of the administered drug was absorbed when the 5% cream was used in patients with moderate to severe scabies.

The absorbed drug is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites by ester hydrolysis and excreted in the urine.

Setomacrogol 1000

– Anionic Emulsifying Wax

– Cera emulsifiers

– Nonionic Emulsifying Wax;/strong>

It is commonly used as a solubilizer and emulsifier in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals and as an ointment base.

Used as an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsifier and wetting agent for creams/lotions.

Emulsifying waxes are used as emulsifiers and hardeners in pharmaceutical preparations and cosmetic products.

Emulsions with a 2% concentration of anionic emulsifying wax are liquid, while those with a 10% concentration are vicious.

Anhydrous ointment bases are made using 3-30% anionic emulsifying wax together with soft and liquid paraffin.

When the cocoa butter emulsifying wax is added at a level of 10%, a suppository base having a yield point is obtained.

Anionic emulsifying wax in British Pharmacopoeia (BP), cetostearyl alcohol, and sodium salts of sodium lauryl sulfate or higher primary aliphatic alcohols with similar sulfates.

Nonionic emulsifying wax registered under American National Formulary (USNF) contains cetostearyl alcohol and polysorbate.

Cetyl and stearyl alcohols have been reported to be non-toxic. The anionic emulsifying wax is present as a white or pale yellow waxy solid or flakes.

It has a slight characteristic odor. It becomes plastic when heated.

Virtually insoluble in water but may emulsify; soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform; It dissolves in fatty oils and liquid paraffin when heated. It occurs as a white or pale yellow waxy solid or as a flake.

It has a slight characteristic odor. It becomes plastic when heated. Convenientinsoluble in water but may emulsify; soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform; It dissolves in fatty oils and liquid paraffin when heated.

It occurs as a white or pale yellow waxy solid or flakes. It has a slight characteristic odor.

It becomes plastic when heated.

Virtually insoluble in water but may emulsify; soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform; It dissolves in fatty oils and liquid paraffin when heated.

– Alcohol cetoestearílico

– Alcohol cetoestearílico [BP; NF; P.Cx.79]

– Alcohol cetyl stearyl [ASK; Ph.Eur.]

– Curse(R)O;/strong>

Cetostearyl alcohol is used as a hardener and emulsion stabilizer in creams, ointments, and other topical preparations.

It is useful in the preparation of oil/water type emulsions that are stable over a wide pH range in combination with hydrophilic emulsifiers and is also used to increase the emollient effect of ointments made with paraffin.

Although not primarily an irritant, hypersensitivity reactions have been reported due to its main components cetyl and stearyl alcohol.

Cetostearyl alcohol is a mixture of solid aliphatic alcohols consisting primarily of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol.

Obtained by reducing suitable fatty acids. The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) and US National Formulary (USNF) state that it must contain at least 90% stearyl and ethyl alcohol and at least 40% stearyl alcohol. Cetostearyl alcohol occurs as a white or light yellow waxy mass or as white flakes or granules with a slight characteristic odor.

Melts on heating to a colorless to pale yellow liquid with no cloudiness or dispersed particles.Virtually insoluble in water; easily soluble in ether; soluble in alcohol and petroleum ether.

When melted, the fatty oils are mixed with liquid paraffin and melted lanolin.

-White Vaseline

– Office Vaseline

– Paraffin, soft, white [BP; P.Cx.79]

– White Vaseline [NF; USP]

– Vaseline, white [PH; Ph.Eur.]

– White Vaseline [ASK];/strong>

Vaseline is included in the composition of topical pharmaceutical preparations as an ointment base with emollient properties. It is not easily absorbed through the skin.

It is also used in creams, transdermal preparations, and cosmetic products. Hypersensitivity reactions related to the topical application have been reported. been reported.

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impurities it contains can cause allergic reactions.

The amount of these contaminants depends on the source of the petroleum jelly and the level of purification.

Hypersensitivity reactions caused by white petroleum jelly are less than those caused by yellow petroleum jelly. For this reason, white petroleum jelly is preferred in cosmetic products and pharmaceutical preparations. Vaseline is made from petroleum.

It is a purified mixture of semi-solid saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2.

It is the bleached form of yellow petroleum jelly.

White, semi-transparent.It is a soft mass.It is odorless and tasteless.Virtually insoluble in acetone, alcohol, glycerin and water; It is soluble in benzene, carbon disulfide, chloroform, ether, hexane, and many fixed and essential oils.

Allows the addition of a stabilizer suitable for the American Pharmacopeia (USP) composition. It should be stored in tightly closed containers in a dry, dry place.

Cool place. It must be protected from light. Vaseline is a very stable substance.

It can, however, cause stability problems due to the very small amounts of impurities it contains.

These impurities can oxidize and cause a color change under the influence of light.

This can create unwanted odors. These oxidations can be avoided by adding an antioxidant such as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, or alpha-tocopherol.

Liquid Paraffin

– Liquid Paraffin

– Mineral Oil

– Liquid Vaseline

– Viscous Paraffin [ASK]

– Mineral Oil [INCI; NF; NF16; USP]

– Paraffin, viscous [Ph.Eur.]

– Paraffinum liquidum [INCI; EU];/strong>

Liquid paraffin is commonly used in topical pharmaceutical preparations.

It is included in the composition of ointment bases to benefit from its emollient properties.

It is used in oil/water emulsions. It is included in tablets and capsules as a lubricant. It is also used in ophthalmic formulations because of its lubricating properties.

Liquid paraffin is a mixture of saturated liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum. It is a transparent, colorless, odorless and viscous liquid.Does not fluoresce in daylight.

It is a tasteless and odorless substance, but gives off a slight odor when heated. Practically insoluble in water, glycerin and alcohol; It is soluble in benzene, acetone, chloroform, ether, carbon disulfide and petroleum ether.

Mixes with most essential and fatty oils (except castor oil).

The addition of small amounts of surfactant ensures increased miscibility/solubility.

Distilled water

– Pure water

– Aqua [INCI-EU]

– Purified water [ASK]

– Water, purified [Ph.Eur.]

– Purified water [BP ; NF; USP];/strong>

Distilled water is ultrapure water produced by the distillation of potable water and used as a solvent or vehicle in many pharmaceutical formulations.

It is a clear, colorless liquid with no characteristic odor or taste. When water is mentioned in a pharmacy, it means distilled water.

The useful life of distilled water is limited. In any case, it should be boiled before water for injections should be used, as some additional properties are required in the Water for use in parenteral preparations. ‘

Also, deionized water can be used instead of distilled water in pharmaceutical preparations, the use of which is permitted because it is cheaper and more readily available.

Preparation of the formula:

Tare one capsule. The active ingredients are weighed separately. In the capsule at a temperature of about 70 °C 2.4 g cetomacrogol 1000, 3 g liquid paraffin, 5.

Melt 1 g of cetostearyl alcohol and 7.5 g of white petroleum jelly by heating.

To this molten oil phase is added 5 g permethrin and mixed until completely dissolved.

On the other hand, 29 g of distilled water are heated in a beaker to a temperature of about 75 °C. The aqueous phase is added to the molten oil phase at a Temperature of about 75°C and mix until a cream of semi-solid consistency is obtained.

Taking into account the weight of the capsule, it is filled with up to 50 g of water.

The formula should be stored at a temperature between 15°C and 25°C. The duration of use is 2 months (7 days without preservatives).

If it is to be used to treat pediculosis on the scalp, a cream should be prepared with 1% permethrin.75 g for children from 1 to 5 years, 7.5 g for children from 6 to 12 years, up to 15 g.

In cases where treatment of the head, neck, scalp and ears is required, the dose can be increased to cover the entire body.

Read also: Permethrin Cream: uses, side effects, and more

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