What Is Potassium?
Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, and Interactions
What Is Potassium?
Potassium is a vital mineral this is crucial to many frame functions, which include the transport of nerve signals, contraction of muscles, law of heartbeats and blood stress, the motion of vitamins into cells, and elimination of mobile waste.
How lots potassium is wanted according to day can vary relying on the person.
The encouraged day-by-day consumption for the common grownup is 4700 milligrams (mg), even though doses of 1600 to 2000 mg an afternoon can be ok for a few adults.
You can normally get sufficient potassium out of your weight-reduction plan however may also want to take dietary supplements when you have malnutrition or have misplaced an excessive amount of potassium because of infection or sure medicinal drugs (like diuretics).
Fruits, greens, legumes, and seeds are wealthy reasserts of potassium.
Potassium deficiency is rare. This article describes the maximum not unusual place motives for potassium supplementation, the encouraged dosage with the aid of using age and organic sex, and the viable facet results.
Dietary dietary supplements aren’t regulated withinside the United States, which means the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does now no longer approve them for protection and effectiveness earlier than the merchandise is marketed. When viable, pick out a complement that has been examined with the aid of using a depended-on 1/3 celebration, consisting of USP, ConsumerLabs, or NSF.
However, even though dietary supplements are 1/3-celebration examined, that doesn’t imply that they may be always secure for every person or powerful in general.
It is critical to speak in your healthcare company approximately any dietary supplements you propose to take and to test in approximately any cap potential interactions with different dietary supplements or medicinal drugs.
Supplement Facts Active aspect(s):
Potassium chloride, citrate, phosphate, aspartate, bicarbonate, or gluconate
Alternate name(s): Potassium salt, potassium chloride salt
Legal fame: Available over the counter (OTC)
Suggested dose: 99 milligrams (mg)
Safety considerations: High doses may also motive gastrointestinal facet results, kidney damage, and small bowel lesions, and can interact with medicinal drugs which include ACE inhibitors and potassium-sparing, loop, and thiazide diuretics Health advantages of potassium Verywell / JR Bee
Uses of Potassium
Supplement use needs to be individualized and vetted with the aid of using a healthcare professional, consisting of a registered dietitian, pharmacist, or doctor.
No complement is meant to treat, cure, or save your ailment.
Some research advises that better intake of potassium may also lessen the chance of illnesses like excessive blood stress and stroke, osteoporosis, kidney stones, and diabetes. Some of those claims are higher supported with the aid of using studies than others.
Blood Pressure and Stroke
Because of potassium’s dating to sodium, which regulates fluid and plasma volume, a few studies have centered on its capacity to decrease blood stress and stroke chance. In an older however memorable 2006 scientific trial, Dietary Approaches to Reduce Hypertension (DASH), posted withinside the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers evaluated whether or not a weight-reduction plan wealthy in end result, greens, low-fats dairy meals, and decreased saturated and general fats ought to decrease blood stress.
Many human beings got here to name it “the DASH weight-reduction plan,” an ingesting sample this is better in potassium and decreases in sodium. Researchers fed individuals a managed weight-reduction plan for 3 weeks.
Then they randomized human beings right into a preferred American weight-reduction plan (manage), a fruit and vegetable weight-reduction plan, or a mixture weight-reduction plan (the DASH weight-reduction plan) for 8 weeks.
Those on the DASH weight-reduction plan reduced their systolic blood stress (stress whilst blood is ejected into arteries) with the aid of using a median of five.
five mmHg and diastolic blood stress (stress in arteries among beats) with the aid of using three.zero mmHg.
More recently, 2017 observation posted withinside the International Journal of Cardiology evaluated the impact of potassium dietary supplements on hypertension (excessive blood stress).
The systematic overview and meta-evaluation determined that potassium supplementation reduced systolic blood stress with the aid of using four. 48 mmHg and diastolic blood stress with the aid of using ninety-six mmHg.
In addition, a 2013 overview withinside the British Medical Journal evaluated whether or not improved potassium consumption ought to have an effect on coronary heart ailment chance elements and ailment, which include stroke.
Researchers checked out 22 randomized managed trials and eleven cohort research.
In addition to decreased blood stress, researchers determined that improved potassium consumption turned into related to a decreased chance of stroke, with better intakes lowering stroke chance with the aid of using 24%.
FDA-Approved Claim The FDA has authorized the subsequent fitness declaration regarding potassium: “Diets containing meals which might be top reasserts of potassium and coffee in sodium may also lessen the chance of excessive blood stress and stroke.”
Since potassium is alkaline (that means it neutralizes acids), a few scientists have evaluated whether or not intake of potassium-wealthy meals and dietary supplements ought to lessen the internet acid content material in a person’s weight-reduction plan and keep calcium in bones.
However, studies on this problem is mixed. An older 2008 observation withinside the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition measured the results of potassium citrate supplementation and improved fruit and vegetable intake in 276 postmenopausal human beings. It determined that once years of potassium citrate supplementation, bone turnover turned into now no longer decreased, and there has been no boom in bone mineral density.6 By contrast, a greater current 2018 observation posted in Nutrients evaluated whether or not potassium ought to lower bone loss in girls with osteopenia (low bone density). The randomized, double-blind, placebo-managed, parallel-institution observe blanketed 310 postmenopausal individuals. It determined that potassium citrate supplementation advanced the useful results of calcium and diet D in osteopenic girls with a potassium deficit.
This observation indicates that potassium’s capacity to boom bone mineral density may also depend upon the consumption of calcium and diet D, vitamins vital for bone fitness. However, greater studies is wanted to verify or disprove this dating.
Abnormally excessive urinary calcium (hypercalciuria) will increase the chance of growing kidney stones. In addition, diets that might be excessive in protein and coffee in potassium may also make a contribution to improved stone formation. Therefore, a few research have tested whether or not potassium ought to lessen kidney stone chance.
In 2016 observe posted withinside the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, researchers tested the connection between protein and potassium consumption in kidney stones.
They determined that better nutritional potassium turned into related to a statistically vast and big discount in kidney stone chance in all groups.
They additionally determined that the sort of protein eaten up may have an effect on kidney stone chance—specifically, vegetable protein decreased the chance in comparison to animal protein.
In addition, a 2015 overview in Cochrane evaluated the function of citrate salts (consisting of potassium citrate) in stopping and containing calcium-containing kidney stones.
In seven research with 477 individuals, researchers determined that citrate drastically decreased stone length in comparison to a placebo or no intervention. In addition, new stone formation turned into drastically decreased withinside the citrate institution than withinside the managed institution.
Blood Glucose and Diabetes
Since potassium is wanted for insulin secretion from the pancreas, a few studies have centered on its dating to glucose (blood sugar) degrees and diabetes.
For example, 2015 observe evaluated the effect of potassium on glucose degrees in older adults.
Researchers determined a vast affiliation between decreased nutritional potassium consumption, decreased insulin sensitivity, and will increase insulin secretion.
Similarly, a 2016 scientific trial evaluated potassium degrees with glucose and diabetes chance over 8 years.
Researchers determined that in comparison to people with better potassium degrees (≥four.5mmol/L), people with decreased degrees (<four.0mmol/L) had drastically better fasting glucose.
In addition, researchers determined an inverse affiliation between serum and nutritional potassium and diabetes chance.
Some human beings may also expand a potassium deficiency whilst intakes are decreased over the years than encouraged degrees, they have a selected chance issue for decrease than ordinary degrees, or there may be a selected motive they may be not able to digest or soak up potassium.
What Causes a Potassium Deficiency?
Intakes that might be much less than the encouraged quantities may also bring about potassium deficiency.
When intakes are decreased than your frame desires, it may result in fitness complications, which include improved blood stress and the chance of growing kidney stones.
In addition to low nutritional intake, a few different matters may also make a contribution to potassium deficiency, which include:
- Diuretic use
- Laxative overuse
- Pica (ingesting non-nutritive substances, like clay)
- Heavy sweating
- Dialysis (a clinical method to cycle blood whilst kidneys can now no longer)
- Inflammatory bowel ailment (IBD)
Some human beings are greater prone to growing a potassium deficiency, which includes:
- Those with IBD
- Those who take diuretics or laxatives
- People with pica
How Do I Know If I Have a Potassium Deficiency?
You might not even recognize when you have a moderate potassium deficiency. However, greater excessive deficiency can bring about hypokalemia, whilst blood serum degrees fall beneath neath three. mmol/L. Mild hypokalemia may also produce signs consisting of:
Constipation Fatigue Muscle weakness Malaise (general feeling unwell)
More severe hypokalemia may also produce the subsequent signs:
Polyuria (immoderate urination) Encephalopathy (ailment affecting mind feature) in human beings with kidney ailment Glucose intolerance Muscular paralysis Poor respiration Cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeat) Severe hypokalemia is life-threatening because of its impact on the coronary heart and breathing.
Fortunately, excessive instances do not often arise due to insufficient potassium consumption alone. However, in case you be aware of any of those signs, it is fine to have them evaluated.
What Are the Side Effects of Potassium?
Your company may also endorse you are taking potassium for deficiency or to decrease your chance of a few fitness situations, like kidney stones. However, ingesting a compliment like potassium may also have cap potential facet results. These facet results can be not unusual place or excessive.
If you are growing your consumption of end results and greens, you’ll be growing your consumption of potassium and fiber.
When growing fiber, it is vital to accomplish that slowly and step by step to save your fuel line and bloating.
In addition, make certain to drink ok quantities of fluids. Neglecting to hydrate as it should can bring about constipation.
Common Side Effects
Common facet results of potassium supplementation consist of:
Diarrhea Nausea Stomach ache or soreness or moderate fuel online Vomiting
Severe Side Effects
More than not often, potassium dietary supplements can bring about excessive facet results. These most usually arise in human beings who’ve excessive intakes and impaired kidney features or who take sure medicinal drugs like ACE inhibitors and potassium-sparing diuretics.
Severe facet results consist of:
Confusion Cold, pale, or grey skin Stomach ache, or bulging Black stools
Numbness or tingling withinside the hands, feet, or lips
Unusual tiredness or weakness
Weakness or heaviness withinside the legs
Call your healthcare company as quickly as viable in case you revel in excessive facet results.
People with sure fitness situations or taking a few medicinal drugs are at extra chance of excessive facet results and drug interactions from potassium.
This consists of people with atypical kidney features and people on potassium-sparing medicinal drugs or ACE inhibitors, commonly used for treating excessive blood stress.
A whole listing of drug interactions is blanketed beneath neath.
Dosage: How Much Potassium Per Day
Always communicate with a healthcare company earlier than taking a complement to make sure that the elements and dosage are suitable for your personal desires.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) recommends the subsequent ok intakes (AIs) for potassium:
400 mg (babies thru 6 months)
860 mg/day (babies 7-12 months)
2,000 mg/day (1-3 years),
2300 mg/day (4- 8 years)
2,500 mg/day (male 9 – 13 years),
2300 mg/day (female 9- 13 years)
3000 mg/day (men 14-18 years),
2300 mg/day (girls 14-18 years),
3400mg/day (men 19+ years) ,
six hundred mg/day (girls 19+ years) ,
2600(beneath each 18) or 2,900 (18+ years) all through being pregnant
2,500 (beneath neath 18) or 2,800 (18+ years) all through lactation
What Happens If I Take Too Much Potassium?
To keep away from toxicity, be aware of the suitable dosage (above). NASEM has now no longer mounted a higher restriction for potassium.
However, human beings with impaired urinary potassium excretion because of fitness situations like kidney ailment or sure medicinal drugs need to be aware of potassium supplementation’s cap potential toxicity.
If you fall into those classes and eat greater potassium than your healthcare company recommends, you could need to are searching for clinical attention.
In addition, in case you be aware of any of the excessive facet results (above), are searching for emergency clinical care. Interactions Some medicinal drugs can interaction with potassium dietary supplements.
These consist of:
ACE inhibitors Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) Potassium-sparing diuretics, consisting of Midamor (amiloride) and Aldactone (spironolactone) Loop diuretics, consisting of Lasix (furosemide) and Bumex (bumetanide) Thiazide diuretics, consisting of Diuril (chlorothiazide) and Zaroxolyn (metolazone)
These medicinal drugs can affect potassium in risky ways.
Therefore, professionals endorse tracking potassium degrees in folks that take those drugs. It is vital to cautiously study the aspect listing and nutrients statistics panel of a complement to recognize which elements are blanketed and in what quantities.
In addition, please overview the complement label together with your healthcare company to speak about cap potential interactions with meals, different dietary supplements, and medicinal drugs.
How To Store Potassium
Store clean end results and greens the use of fine practices for maximizing their freshness.
Storage tips vary relying on the fruit or vegetable.
For example, a few need to be refrigerated whilst others, consisting of tomatoes, need to be left at room temperature. Store potassium dietary supplements in a cool, dry place. Keep potassium far from direct sunlight. Discard after 12 months or as indicated on the packaging.
Sources of Potassium and What To Look For:
The premiere manner to satisfy your potassium desires is to consume a number of entire meals, which include end results like avocados, oranges, bananas, greens (consisting of candy potatoes, squash, and dried beans), low-fat milk, and sure reasserts of protein like salmon and chicken.
That’s due to the fact meals meet different dietary desires and are normally absorbed greater with ease with the aid of using the frame. When you can not meet ok meal consumption, dietary supplements also are an option.
Foods Sources of Potassium
According to the USDA nutrients database, the subsequent are meals excessive in potassium:
- 15 Acorn squash (1 cup cooked without salt): 896 milligrams
- Apple (1 medium with skin): 195 milligrams
- Artichokes (1 cup hearts cooked): 480 milligrams
- Avocado (1/four of the entire): 172 milligrams
- Banana (1 medium): 430 milligrams Beets (1 cup raw): 442 milligrams
- Broccoli (1 cup chopped and cooked): 457 milligrams
- Baby Brussels sprouts (thirteen pieces): 315 milligrams
- Beans (1/2 cup dried—quantities range primarily based totally on variety): 1,813 milligrams
- Cantaloupe (1 cup cubes): 427 milligrams Carrots (1 cup chopped): 410 milligrams
- Cherries (1 cup without pits): 342 milligrams
- Milk (1 cup low-fats): 350-380 milligrams
- Mushrooms (1 cup entire): 305 milligrams
- Orange (1 small): 238 milligrams
- Peas (1 cup raw): 354 milligrams
- Peppers (1 cup chopped): 314 milligrams
- Parsley (1 cup chopped): 332 milligrams
- Potato (1 medium baked with skin): 930 milligrams Quinoa (1 cup cooked): 318 milligrams
- Salmon (6 ounces): 730 milligrams
- Spinach (1 cup cooked): 839 milligrams
- Sweet potato (1 cup baked ): 664 milligrams Tomatoes (1 cup chopped): 430 milligrams
- Watermelon (1 cup diced): one hundred seventy milligrams
- Yogurt (1 cup): 625 milligrams
If you’ve got had an issue including clean produce in your weight-reduction plan, recollect including frozen end results and greens. Food is frozen at the top freshness, improving its dietary value.
Avoid cooking at excessive warmth or boiling your end result and greens to keep diet content material.
If you like, you may consume a sure end result and greens raw.
Otherwise, sauté them on medium warmth with a small number of fats, consisting of olive or coconut oil. Some processed and packaged meals additionally incorporate brought potassium salts or clearly happening potassium (consisting of dried beans and entire grains).
These meals consist of:
- Snack meals
- Frozen meals
- Processed meat
- Soups Sauces
- Meal bars
Keep in thoughts that a few packaged and canned meals may be very excessive in sodium, making those now no longer the fine preference for a person who’s taking into account the use of potassium to decrease blood stress.
If you need to screen your potassium consumption, understand the labels. Most aspect labels will list “potassium chloride” as an additive.
Supplementing With Potassium
Potassium dietary supplements are available in capsules, tablets, liquid, and powder.
Common potassium dietary supplements consist of:
- Potassium chloride
- Potassium Citrate
- Potassium phosphate
- Potassium aspartate
- Potassium bicarbonate
- Potassium gluconate
Research has proven that none of that paperwork is higher than another.12 You may discover brought potassium in merchandise consisting of Emergen C (a powdered drink).
Most OTC potassium dietary supplements and multivitamin-mineral dietary supplements offer no greater than approximately ninety-nine mg of potassium according to serving (that’s a small percent of the encouraged consumption).
In the past, the FDA dominated that a few oral drug merchandise that incorporate potassium chloride and offer greater than ninety-nine mg of potassium aren’t secure due to the fact they were related to small-bowel lesions.
As a result, the FDA calls for a caution label approximately the cap potential for those lesions on a few potassium salts that exceed ninety-nine mg.
Be certain to study the labels of potassium merchandise cautiously, in particular in case you’re at the chance for hyperkalemia.
Also, in case you are vegan or have allergies, study labels cautiously for vegan or allergen-unfastened merchandise.
Summary Potassium is a mineral that helps many frame functions, which include the coronary heart and blood vessels, nerves, and muscles.
There is proof that potassium may also lessen the chance of excessive blood stress, stroke, diabetes, and kidney stones.
People with kidney ailments are prone to potassium toxicity due to the fact their kidneys might not filter potassium adequately.
Therefore, they need to now no longer take potassium dietary supplements except as directed by the aid of using a healthcare company. In addition, sure medicinal drugs, which include ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and a few others, may pose a chance.
So, speaking to a healthcare company earlier than taking any complement, which includes potassium, is vital.